Monday, November 18, 2013

Andropause: Glossary of Terms (S-W)


Sarcopenia:  The age-related degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass (0.5-1% loss per year after the age of 25), quality, and strength associated with aging.

Sadness: Feeling of grief or unhappiness.

Sandwich Generation: A generation of people who care for their aging parents while supporting their own children, those with dependent (or college-aged) children and parents over the age of 70. 

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Scrotum: The scrotum is a sac that hangs behind and below the penis, and contains the testes (testicles), the male sexual glands. The scrotum's primary function is to maintain the testes at approximately 34 C, the temperature at which the testes most effectively produce sperm.

Secondary Sexual Characteristics: Physical characteristics developed at puberty that distinguish between the sexes but are not involved in reproduction. Secondary sex characteristics are thought to have evolved to give an individual an advantage in mating by making the individual more attractive to mates or by allowing the individual to defeat rivals in competition for mates. Some secondary sex characteristics include the facial hair of the human male, the relatively prominent breasts of the human female, the antlers found only in the male of most species of deer, and the colorful plumage of the males of many species of birds. The appearance of secondary sex characteristics is determined by the sex hormones.

Sedentary Lifestyle: A sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle with no or irregular physical activity. Sedentary activities include sitting, reading, watching television, playing video games, and computer use for much of the day with little or no vigorous physical exercise.

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Seminal Vesicles: The seminal vesicles produce semen, a fluid that activates and protects the sperm after it has left the penis during ejaculation.

Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs): A novel class of androgen receptor ligands, intended to have the same kind of effects as androgenic drugs like anabolic steroids but be much more selective in their action, allowing them to be used for many more clinical indications than the relatively limited legitimate uses that anabolic steroids are currently approved for.

Sex Drive: A physiological need for sexual activity; testosterone is responsible for the male sex drive.

Sex Hormones: Male hormones, or androgens, include testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and androsterone; female hormones include progesterone and the estrogens (estradiol and estrone). Chemically, all are steroids, derived from cholesterol.

Sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG): Protein, insoluble in water, binding to and transporting testosterone from the blood, which levels drop with aging.

Sexual Arousal (Sexual Excitement): The arousal of sexual desire, during or in anticipation of sexual activity.

Sexual Dissatisfaction: Sexual dysfunction is broadly defined as the inability to fully enjoy sexual intercourse. Specifically, sexual dysfunctions are disorders that interfere with a full sexual response cycle. These disorders make it difficult for a person to enjoy or to have sexual intercourse. While sexual dysfunction rarely threatens physical health, it can take a heavy psychological toll, bringing on depression, anxiety, and debilitating feelings of inadequacy.

Sexual Orientation: An enduring personal quality that inclines people to feel romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes, or more than one gender. These attractions are generally subsumed under heterosexuality, homosexuality, and bisexuality, while asexuality (the lack of romantic or sexual attraction to others) is sometimes identified as the fourth category.

Sexual Stimulation: Any stimulus (including, but by no means limited to, bodily contact) that leads to, enhances and maintains sexual arousal, and may lead to ejaculation and/or orgasm. Although sexual arousal may arise without stimulation, achieving orgasm usually requires sexual stimulation. The term often implies stimulation of the genitals but may also include stimulation of other areas of the body, stimulation of the senses (such as sight or hearing) and mental stimulation (i.e. from reading or fantasizing). Sufficient stimulation of the penis in males and the clitoris in females usually results in an orgasm. Stimulation can be by self (e.g. masturbation) or by a partner (sexual intercourse, oral sex, mutual masturbation, etc.), by use of objects or tools, or by some combination of these methods

Sexual Thoughts: Thoughts or fantasies, implying or symbolizing erotic desires or activity.

Sinusitis: Inflammation of the sinuses or a sinus, especially in the nasal region.

Sleep Apnea: A condition in which individuals stop breathing for periods of time while sleeping.

Sleep Disturbance (Insomnia): Sleeping difficulty, called insomnia, can involve difficulty falling asleep when you first go to bed at night, waking up too early in the morning, and waking up often during the night.

Smegma: A substance with the texture of cheese secreted by glands on each side of the frenulum in uncircumsized men penis.

Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Social Phobia involves a fear of social situations and is usually associated with low self-esteem and fear of criticism. Sufferers may display symptoms of flushing, hand tremor, nausea, or urgency to urinate which may progress to panic attacks. Avoidance is often marked, and in extreme cases may result in virtually complete social isolation.

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Social Support: The perception and actuality that one is cared for, has assistance available from other people, and that one is part of a supportive social network. These supportive resources can be emotional (e.g., nurturance), tangible (e.g., financial assistance), informational (e.g., advice), or companionship (e.g., sense of belonging).

Sphincter: A ring-shaped muscle that encircles an opening or passage in the body. The opening and closing of the anus is controlled by contraction and relaxation of a sphincter, as is the opening that leads to the stomach from the esophagus.

Steroids: Fat-soluble organic chemicals, formed in the body from cholesterol and fats. Steroids include the male sex hormone, testosterone; the female sex hormone, estrogen; and the stress hormones secreted by the outer part of the adrenal gland.

Stress Incontinence: Medical condition when coughing, laughing, sneezing, or other movements that put pressure on the bladder may cause you to leak urine. 

Stroke: A sudden loss of brain function caused by a blockage or rupture of a blood vessel to the brain, characterized by loss of muscular control, diminution or loss of sensation or consciousness, dizziness, slurred speech, or other symptoms that vary with the extent and severity of the damage to the brain.


Tachycardia: A condition in which the heart contracts at a rate greater than 100/min. It may occur normally in response to fever, exercise, or nervous excitement. Pathologic tachycardia accompanies anoxia, such as that caused by anemia; congestive heart failure; hemorrhage; or shock. Tachycardia acts to increase the amount of oxygen delivered to the cells of the body by increasing the rate at which blood circulates through the vessels.

Telogen Effluvium: Loss or substantial thinning of the hair on the head or entire body, usually triggered by certain drugs consumption. Often this merely lasts for a few months. 

Testes: The pair of male reproductive glands enclosed in the scrotum that produce the male sex hormone testosterone and the spermatozoa.

Testicular Pain: Testicular pain is when part or all of either one or both testicles hurt. Pain of the scrotum is often included. It may be acute, subacute or chronic depending on its duration.

Testicular Scan: A testicular scan uses a camera to take pictures of the testicles after a radioactive tracer accumulates in testicular tissues (nuclear medicine test). During a testicular scan, the tracer substance is injected into a vein in the arm. It travels through the bloodstream to the testicles. Areas of the testicles where the tracer accumulates in abnormal amounts may indicate some types of tumors.

Testosterone: A male hormone produced by the testes. It is responsible for the proper development of male sexual characteristics.

Testosterone Levels (Normal): Normal values of testosterone levels for males: normal range of total testosterone for men is between 300 - 1200 nanograms per deciliters (ng/dl). Normal ranges for free testosterone (the actual active testosterone that your body can use) are: 8.7 - 25 picograms per milliliters (pg/ml).

Testosterone Replacement: Therapy Treatment that aims not only to reach normal levels of serum testosterone, but also to normalize levels of secondary hormones that are affected by low testosterone levels. Treatment options include: oral, tablets/ capsules, injections, plantable long-acting slow release pellets and transdermal (through the skin) patches and gels.

Thrombosis: Medical condition which may occur during periods of frequent and prolonged sexual activity, especially fellatio. It is usually harmless and self-corrects within a few weeks.

Thyroid: The thyroid gland or simply, the thyroid, in vertebrate anatomy, is one of the largest endocrine glands. The thyroid gland is found in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage (which forms the laryngeal prominence, or "Adam's apple"). 

Traction Alopecia:  Traumatic alopecia due to continuous or prolonged traction on the hair, as applied in certain styles of hair dressing or in the habit of twisting the hair.

Transience: This is the tendency to forget facts or events over time. You are most likely to forget information soon after you learn it. However, memory has a use-it-or-lose-it quality: memories that are called up and used frequently are least likely to be forgotten. Although transience might seem like a sign of memory weakness, brain scientists regard it as beneficial because it clears the brain of unused memories, making way for newer, more useful ones.

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Tunica Albuginea:  A membrane in the penis, surrounding the corpora cavenosa. This membrane helps to keep blood in the penis during an erection.

Turban Alopecia: A type of traction alopecia that is seen in people who wear tight turbans, such as Sikhs.  Turban Alopecia can also occur as a result of knotting and braiding long hair which results in hair being pulled continuously for long periods of time.  This can cause hair loss with the same mechanism as many other types of traction alopecia – chronic pull on hair follicles can destroy them permanently.


Unbound (Free) Testosterone: Testosterone molecules can circulate partnered with an abundant component of blood called albumin. The link between testosterone and albumin is so weak that this fraction is not considered "bound." (See Bound Testosterone). Testosterone can also circulate alone, not bound to protein, and this fraction is considered "free." It comprises 2 percent of the testosterone in the body and is the biologically active form of the hormone. 

Ureter: The long, narrow duct that conveys urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder or cloaca.

Urethra: The canal through which urine is discharged from the bladder and through which semen is discharged in the male.

Urinary Incontinence: Urinary Incontinence in men is the unintentional passage of urine, a loss of bladder control.

Urinary Retention (Ischuria, Bladder-emptying Problem): A lack of ability to urinate, a common urological problem with many possible causes. 

Urinary Tract Infection: Infection of any of the organs of the urinary tract.

Urology: Urology is a surgical specialty which deals with diseases of the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive organs. Although urology is classified as a surgical specialty, a knowledge of internal medicine, pediatrics, gynecology and other specialties is required by the urologist because of the wide variety of clinical problems encountered.


Vertigo: Dizziness characterized by a sensation of whirling motion, either of oneself or of external objects. Vertigo is often caused by damage or disease in the inner ear.

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Viagra: Oral drug for male impotence, generic name sildenafil, approved by FDA in 1998.


Withdrawal: Discontinuation of the use of an addictive substance and the physiological and mental readjustment that accompanies such discontinuation.

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