Wednesday, April 17, 2013

Andropause: Glossary of Terms (A)


Aboulomania:  A mental disorder is which the patient suffers from mental derangement by weakened willpower or pathological indecisiveness.

Absentmindedness: The type of forgetting occurring when you don’t pay close enough attention.

Acupuncture: A procedure used in or adapted from Chinese medical practice in which specific body areas are pierced with fine needles for therapeutic purposes or to relieve pain or produce regional anesthesia.

Acute Bacterial Prostatitis: A sudden bacterial infection that leads to prostate inflammation. 

Acute Stress Disorder: Type of anxiety disorder that develops within one month after a severe traumatic event or experience. Distressing dissociative symptoms are common, including depersonalization, derealization, or dissociative amnesia. Anxiety, irritability, depression, and diminished ability to experience pleasure are pretty common. There may be problems falling or staying asleep. A person with Acute Stress Disorder will avoid any reminders of the trauma but re-experiencing the event in dreams, nightmares, or painful memories.

Addiction: The continued use of a mood altering substance or behavior despite adverse consequences, or a neurological impairment leading to such behaviors.

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Adrenal Fatigue: Adrenal fatigue is a collection of signs and symptoms, known as a syndrome, that results when the adrenal glands function below the necessary level. Most commonly associated with intense or prolonged stress, it can also arise during or after acute or chronic infections, especially respiratory infections such as influenza, bronchitis or pneumonia.

Adrenaline (see Epinephrine)

Aggression: Hostile or destructive behavior or actions that is intended to threaten or inflict physical injury on another person or organism

Age Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI): A label for the general degradation of memory which results from ageing. It is a natural process, seen in many animals as well as humans, which often begins in our 20s and tends to get noticeably worse as we reach our 50s. While some specific abilities do decline with age, though, overall memory generally remains strong for most people through their 70s.

Aerobic Exercises: Type of physical exercises, focused on increasing cardiovascular endurance, such as cycling, swimming, walking, skipping rope, rowing, running, hiking, or playing tennis.

Alcohol Abuse (Alcoholism): A psychiatric diagnosis describing the recurring use of alcoholic beverages despite its negative consequences.

Alcohol Dementia: A form of dementia caused by long-term, excessive drinking, resulting in neurological damage and impaired mental processing.

Alcohol Dependence: A substance related disorder in which an individual is addicted to alcohol either physically or mentally, and continues to use alcohol despite significant areas of dysfunction, evidence of physical dependence, and/or related hardship.

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Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: The set of symptoms seen when an individual reduces or stops alcohol consumption after prolonged periods of excessive alcohol intake.

Allergy: An allergy is a hypersensitivity disorder of the immune system. Allergic reactions occur when a person's immune system reacts to normally harmless substances in the environment.

Alopecia: Alopecia is the partial or complete loss of hair—especially on the scalp—either in patches (alopecia areata), on the entire head (alopecia totalis), or over the entire body (alopecia universalis). Well known, and varying in onset, in the course of ageing. It also occurs, less irrevocably, due to skin damage or disease or to the side-effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer. The cells at the base of the hair follicles of the scalp, which normally keep on manufacturing new keratinous substance to add to the root of the hair, die or cease to function; the hair therefore falls out and is not replaced, until or unless that cellular function is restored.

Alopecia Areata: Alopecia Areata might hit completely different regions of the head. You will find this more typically in youngsters, and young adults than older people. Usually it is a momentary loss of hair, triggered by hormone modifications, similar to in young adults and expecting women. Whereas extremely embarrassing it is usually less than a year before the hair returns.

Alopecia Mucinosa: It generally presents, but not exclusively, as erythematous plaques or flat patches without hair primarily on the scalp and face. This can also present on the body as a follicular mucinosis and may represent a systemic disease.

Alopecia Totalis: Complete loss of hair from the entire scalp.

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Alopecia Universalis: Complete loss of all bodily hair.

Alzheimer’s (AD): А progressive form of presenile dementia that is similar to senile dementia except that it usually starts in the 40s or 50s; first symptoms are impaired memory which is followed by impaired thought and speech and finally complete helplessness.

Anaerobic Exercises: Type of physical exercises, increasing short-term muscle strength, such as weight training, functional training, eccentric training, or sprinting and high-intensity interval training.

Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (see Andropause)

Androgen Replacement Therapy (andropausal and ergogenic use): Hormone treatment often prescribed to counter the effects of male hypogonadism. It is also prescribed to lessen the effects or delay the onset of normal male aging. Additionally, androgen replacement therapy is used for men who have lost their testicular function to disease, cancer, or other causes

Androgenic Alopecia: It is generally known as male pattern baldness, Androgenetic alopecia occurs according to a definite pattern, beginning above your temples, while your hairline recedes in the form of a typical ‘M’ shape. You also experience extensive hair loss on the top of your head, which can be either partial or total. Depending on the level of testosterone – the androgenic hormone in your body – male pattern hair loss can be linked to a combination of hormonal and genetic factors.

Androgens: An overall grouping of male hormones. They are made in the testes and in the adrenal gland.

Andropause (Male Menopause, Man-O-Pause, Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male): A natural emotional and physical change that occurs with age caused by a decrease in male hormones. Symptoms of andropause include: low sex drive, difficulties getting erections or erections that aren't as strong as usual, lack of energy, depression, irritability and mood swings, loss of strength or muscle mass, increased body fat and hot flashes.

Androstenedione: A steroid sex hormone C19H26O2 that is secreted by the testes, ovaries, and adrenal cortex and is a precursor of testosterone and estrogen.

Androstenediol: A crystalline androgenic steroid, C19H30O2 has been shown to increase androgen prohormone, testosterone, and estradiol. It functions to stimulate the immune system.

Androsterone: A steroid hormone excreted in urine that reinforces masculine characteristics, but not with the same intensity of testosterone.

Anorgasmia (Coughlan's Syndrome): A type of sexual dysfunction in which a person cannot achieve orgasm, even with adequate stimulation. In males, the condition is often related to delayed ejaculation. Anorgasmia can often cause sexual frustration.

Antidepressants: Drugs that prevent or relieve the symptoms of depression. Various psychological disorders are treated with antidepressants.

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Antipsychotic: Drugs, counteracting or diminishing the symptoms of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, paranoia, and bipolar disorder.

Anxiety: Experience of fear or apprehension in response to anticipated internal or external danger accompanied by some or all of the following signs: muscle tension, restlessness, sympathetic (automonic) hyperactivity (for example, diarrhea, palpitation, rapid breathing or jitteriness), or cognitive signs and symptoms (for example, hypervigilance, confusion, decreased concentration, or fear of losing control). It may be transient and adaptive or pathologic in intensity and duration.

Apathy: Absence of interest in or enthusiasm for things generally considered interesting or moving.

Aphrodisiac: Any of various forms of stimulation thought to arouse sexual excitement. They may be psychophysiological (arousing the senses of sight, touch, smell, or hearing) or internal (e.g., foods, alcoholic drinks, drugs, love potions, medicinal preparations).

Asthma: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. In those susceptible to asthma, this inflammation causes the airways to spasm and to swell periodically so that the airways narrow. The individual then must wheeze or gasp for air. Obstruction to air flow either resolves spontaneously or responds to a wide range of treatments, but continuing inflammation makes the airways hyper-responsive to stimuli such as cold air, exercise, dust mites, pollutants in the air, and even stress and anxiety.

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Atherosclerosis (arteriosclerotic vascular disease, ASVD): A condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of fatty materials such as cholesterol and triglyceride.

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