Monday, October 21, 2013

Andropause: Glossary of Terms (P-R)


Painful Bladder Syndrome (Interstitial Cystitis): A disorder in which the wall of the bladder becomes irritated and inflamed leading to a variety of problems including thickening and scaring of the bladder, diminished bladder capacity (resulting in frequent urination), bleeding and in severe cases, ulcers in the bladder lining.

Palpitations: A sensation in which a person is aware of an irregular, hard, or rapid heartbeat.

Panic Attack (Anxiety Attack): The sudden onset of intense anxiety, characterized by feelings of intense fear and apprehension and accompanied by palpitations, shortness of breath, sweating, and trembling.

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Paraphimosis: An inability to move the foreskin forward, over the glans. It can result from fluid trapped in a foreskin left retracted, perhaps following a medical procedure, or accumulation of fluid in the foreskin because of friction during vigorous sexual activity.

Parkinson Disease (PD): Parkinson disease is a progressive movement disorder marked by tremors, rigidity, slow movements (bradykinesia), and posture instability. It occurs when cells in one of the movement-control centers of the brain begin to die for unknown reasons.

Penile Fracture: Penile fracture can occur if the erect penis is bent excessively. A popping or cracking sound and pain is normally associated with this event. Emergency medical assistance should be obtained. Prompt medical attention lowers likelihood of permanent penile curvature.

Peptides: Organic compounds composed of amino acids linked together chemically by peptide bonds. Peptide chains longer than a few dozen amino acids are called proteins. Biosynthesis of peptides from a succession of amino acids carried by transfer RNA molecules takes place on ribosomes and is catalyzed and controlled by enzymes. Many hormones, antibiotics, and other compounds that participate in life processes are peptides.

Phobia: A persistent, abnormal, and irrational fear of a specific thing or situation that compels one to avoid it, despite the awareness and reassurance that it is not dangerous.

Physical Dependence: A state resulting from chronic use of a drug that has produced tolerance and where negative physical symptoms of withdrawal result from abrupt discontinuation or dosage reduction.

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Physical Exercise: Any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, as well as for the purpose of enjoyment.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): PTSD may develop from a terrifying event or ordeal that a person has experienced, witnessed or learned about, especially one that is Life threatening or causes physical harm. This traumatic experience causes the person to feel intense fear, horror or a sense of helplessness. The stress caused by trauma can affect all aspects of a person's life including mental, emotional and physical well being.

Prefrontal Cortex (PFC): Interior part of the frontal lobes of the brain, lying in front of the motor and premotor areas. This brain region has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making and moderating social behavior. The basic activity of this brain region is considered to be orchestration of thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals.

Premature Ejaculation: Ejaculation during the early stages of sexual excitement or soon after the insertion of the penis into the vagina.

Priapism: Priapism is a painful and potentially harmful medical condition in which the erect penis does not return to its flaccid state. The causative mechanisms are poorly understood but involve complex neurological and vascular factors. Potential complications include ischaemia, thrombosis, and impotence. In serious cases the condition may result in gangrene, which may necessitate amputation. The condition has been associated with a variety of drugs including prostaglandin but not sildenafil (Viagra).

Primary Sex Characteristic: The genetically determined sex characteristics bound up with reproduction (genitals and organs of reproduction),

Prostate: A gland surrounding the neck of the bladder in male mammals and releasing prostatic fluid.

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Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland that results in urinary frequency and urgency, burning or painful urination, a condition called dysuria, and pain in the lower back and genital area, among other symptoms. In some cases, prostatitis is caused by bacterial infection and can be treated with antibiotics. But the more common forms of prostatitis are not associated with any known infecting organism.

Proteinuria: The presence of abnormal amounts of protein in the urine.

Psychosis: A severe mental disorder, with or without organic damage, characterized by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality and causing deterioration of normal social functioning.

Psychotherapy: Psychotherapy is a general term referring to therapeutic interaction or treatment contracted between a trained professional and a client, patient, family, couple, or group. The problems addressed are psychological in nature and can vary in terms of their causes, influences, triggers, and potential resolutions.

Puberty: The stage of adolescence in which an individual becomes physiologically capable of sexual reproduction.


Radiation Treatment: A cancer treatment method that uses x-rays to modify or destroy cancer cells; dental patients who are undergoing radiation therapy may exhibit an increased need for certain nutrients.

Radical Prostatectomy: The surgical removal of the entire prostate gland.

REM Sleep: The period of sleep during which the brain waves are fast and of low voltage, and autonomic activities, such as heart rate and respiration, are irregular. This type of sleep is associated with dreaming, mild involuntary muscle jerks, and rapid eye movements (REM). It usually occurs three to four times each night at intervals of 80 to 120 minutes, each occurrence lasting from 5 minutes to more than an hour.

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Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS): Irresistible urge to move the legs during rest, often experienced as an itching or spasmodic sensation.

Rigi Scan: An instrument used in male research to determine if patients are able to get an erection while sleeping. It measures penile tumescence and rigidity continuously. It has two loops, one to be placed around the base of the penis and the other towards the tip, that tighten every fifteen or thirty seconds.

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