Thursday, April 25, 2013

Andropause: Glossary of Terms (B-D)


Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH):  The enlargement of the prostate which can make urination difficult. The swelling of the prostate squeezes the urethra, obstructing the flow of urine. While BPH is common especially in men over the age of 60, it does not always cause blockages.

Bipolar Disorder: Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic depression, is a mood disorder that causes radical emotional changes and mood swings, from manic, restless highs to depressive, listless lows. Most bipolar individuals experience alternating episodes of mania and depression.

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Bladder: The bag-like part of the body in which the urine collects.

Blood Pressure: The pressure exerted by the circulating volume of blood on the walls of the arteries and veins and on the chambers of the heart. Blood pressure is regulated by the homeostatic mechanisms of the body by the volume of the blood, the lumen of the arteries and arterioles, and the force of cardiac contraction. In the aorta and large arteries of a healthy young adult, blood pressure is approximately 120 mm Hg during systole and 70 mm Hg during diastole.

Bone Density: A measurement of the amount of calcium and other minerals in a segment of bone. A higher mineral content indicates a higher bone density and strength, used to detect osteoporosis or monitor its treatment.

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD): A pattern of behavior characterized by impulsive acts, intense but chaotic relationships with others, identity problems, and emotional instability.

Bound Testosterone: "Bound" testosterone refers to testosterone molecules that circulate in the blood tightly bound to a protein molecule called sex hormone binding globulin, or SHBG.

Bulbourethral Gland (Cowper's Gland): One of two small exocrine glands present in the reproductive system of men, located below the prostate and discharging a component of the seminal fluid into the urethra.


Cardiovascular Disease (Heart Disease): A class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries, capillaries and veins).

Central Sleep Apnea (CSA): A central nervous system sleep disorder in which the brain signal for breathing is delayed. CSA if often caused by injury or disease affecting the brain stem. 

Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis: This condition is the result of recurrent urinary tract infections that have entered the prostate gland. It is thought to exist for several years in some men before producing symptoms. 

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): An illness of unknown origin whose primary symptom is of extreme fatigue and flu-like symptoms.

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Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): The gradual reduction of kidney function that may lead to permanent kidney failure, or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis): Chronic pelvic pain syndrome is the most common of the categories since it accounts for 90 percent of the prostatitis cases. It is characterized by pelvic or perineal pain without evidence of urinary tract infection, lasting longer than 3 months, as the key symptom. The pain may increase or decrease with certain body positions or activities. Sitting or standing for a long time, moving your bowels, having sex, or urinating may worsen your pain. 

Chronic Stress: The response to emotional pressure suffered for a prolonged period over which an individual perceives he or she has no control. It involves an endocrine system response in which occurs a release of corticosteroids. If this continues for a long time, it can cause damage to an individual's physical and mental health.

Cicatricial Alopecia: That is a form of permanent baldness, which occurs due to inflammation. On this condition, the soreness could damage the hair’s follicle and then afterwards, grew to become scars. Due to these scars, the newest hair is averted from coming out. Scarring damage alopecia may be due to certain skin disorders like lupus erythematosus as well as lichen planus in which specialists are yet to discover what the main source of the soreness is.

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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): A psychotherapeutic approach that addresses dysfunctional emotions, maladaptive behaviors and cognitive processes and contents through a number of goal-oriented, explicit systematic procedures.

Constipation: Constipation is an acute or chronic condition in which bowel movements occur less often than usual or consist of hard, dry stools that are painful or difficult to pass. Bowel habits vary, but an adult who has not had a bowel movement in three days is considered constipated.

Corona: The 'crown,' a ridge of flesh demarcating where the head of the penis and the shaft join.

Corpora Cavernosa: Two chambers of the penis, filled with a spongy tissue that includes muscles, open spaces, veins and arteries. An erection occurs when the corpora cavernosa become engorged with blood and expand.

Corpus Spongiosum: A chamber, surrounding urethra, which becomes engorged with blood during an erection.

Cortisol: An important hormone in the body, secreted by the adrenal glands and involved in the following functions and more: Proper glucose metabolism; Regulation of blood pressure; Insulin release for blood sugar maintenance; Immune function; Inflammatory response. Normally, it’s present in the body at higher levels in the morning, and at its lowest at night. Although stress isn’t the only reason that cortisol is secreted into the bloodstream, it has been termed “the stress hormone” because it’s also secreted in higher levels during the body’s ‘fight or flight’ response to stress, and is responsible for several stress-related changes in the body.

Cortisol Imbalance: Too much stress can keep your cortisol levels consistently elevated, which disrupts your metabolic system. This, in turn, signals your cells to store as much fat as possible. Worse, the fat tends to accumulate in your belly as visceral fat, which resides behind your abdominal muscles and has more cortisol receptors than other fat does.

Cholesterol: A white soapy substance found in the tissues of the body and in certain foods, such as animal fats, oils, and egg yolks. Cholesterol has been linked to heart disease and atherosclerosis. (It collects on the walls of arteries and interferes with the flow of blood.) High levels of cholesterol in the blood are considered to be unhealthy.

Craving: When going through withdrawal, craving is a psychological urge to administer a discontinued medication or recreational drug.

Cyberphobia: Fear of computers or working on a computer.

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Cystitis: Inflammation of the bladder wall.

Cystoscopy (Cystourethroscopy): A diagnostic procedure that is used to look at the bladder (lower urinary tract), collect urine samples, and examine the prostate gland. Performed with an optic instrument known as a cystoscope (urethroscope), this instrument uses a lighted tip for guidance to aid in diagnosing urinary tract disease and prostate disease. Performed by a urologist, this surgical test also enables biopsies to be taken or small stones to be removed by way of a hollow channel in the cystoscope.


Decidophobia: Fear of making decisions.

Decreased Libido: Decreased libido is a reduction in the sex drive

Defense Mechanisms: In Freudian psychoanalytic theory, defense mechanisms are psychological strategies brought into play by the unconscious mind to manipulate, deny, or distort reality (through processes including, but not limited to, repression, identification, or rationalization), and to maintain a socially acceptable self-image or self-schema.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA): An endogenous (naturally occurring in the human body) steroid hormone that is needed to produce other types of hormones including estrogen and testosterone. It is produced in the adrenal cortex from cholesterol and is commonly called dehydroandrosterone.

Delayed Ejaculation: A medical condition in which a man is unable to ejaculate or has persistent difficulty ejaculating. Delayed ejaculation can be caused by chronic medical problems, certain medications or surgery. It may also have psychological causes. In some instances it is a combination of both physical and psychological causes.

Delirium: A temporary state of mental confusion and fluctuating consciousness resulting from high fever, intoxication, shock, or other causes. It is characterized by anxiety, disorientation, hallucinations, delusions, and incoherent speech.

Dementia: Deterioration of intellectual faculties, such as memory, concentration, and judgment, resulting from an organic disease or a disorder of the brain. It is sometimes accompanied by emotional disturbance and personality changes.

Depression (Clinical Depression): A mental state of altered mood characterized by feelings of sadness, despair, and discouragement.

Diabetes: A disease characterized by an inability to process sugars in the diet, due to a decrease in or total absence of insulin production. May require injections of insulin before meals to aid in the metabolism of sugars.

Diarrhea: The passage of loose or watery stools, usually at more frequent than normal intervals. Diarrhea is a symptom of many diseases and may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, griping, tenesmus, and other general or specific indications of a disease.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT): A metabolite of testosterone that binds strongly with androgen receptors. It is responsible for the formation of male sex-specific characteristics such as the male genitalia and prostate.

Dizziness: A whirling sensation and a tendency to fall.

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Dopamine: A chemical messenger in the brain and nervous system. Dopamine is thought to control balance, movement, and other body functions. It also affects the mood and is linked to feelings of pleasure.

Dysuria: Pain during urination.

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